OBSERVARE
Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
e-ISSN: 1647-7251
Vol. 11, Nº. 2 (November 2020-April 2021)
199
THE CHARACTERIZATION OF MANAGEMENT PROCESSES IN HIGHER
EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN MOZAMBIQUE.
COLLEGIALITY, MANAGERIALISM AND OTHER CONJUGATED FACTORS
MAOMEDE NAGUIB OMAR
manotio@yahoo.com.br
Post-Doctorate and Integrated Researcher of OBSERVARE/UAL. Associate Professor and General
Director of ISCIM - Instituto Superior de Comunicação e Imagem de Moçambique (Mozambique).
PhD in Higher Education Studies and master’s in Public Management from the University of
Aveiro. Post-Graduate in Public Policy and Development Administration from the School of Public
and Development Management, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
RENATO PEREIRA
renato.pereira@iscte-iul.pt
Integrated Researcher at OBSERVARE/UAL where he coordinates the line of research Economic
Spaces and Resource Management. Professor of General Management at ISCTE Business School,
ISCTE – University Institute of Lisbon (Portugal). Between 2018 and 2020 he coordinated the
Seminar on Geoeconomy and Transnationalisation of the Economies of the PhD in International
Relations: Geopolitics and Geoeconomy of the Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa. PhD in
Management Sciences at the Université Paris Dauphine.
.
Abstract
This article discusses the transposition of the principles normally applied in business
management to Higher Education Institutions (HEI). In particular, it discusses the influence
exerted by managerialism in the structuring and operation of Higher Education Institutions.
In the empirical study conducted in Mozambique, the positions of different actors on different
dimensions and categories of the problem are analyzed, supported by a methodology of
qualitative analysis from a sample of 9 IES. The main conclusions reveal that in Mozambican
higher education there remains a certain resistance from the higher education communities,
particularly from its professionals, to the intrusion of managerialism, highlighting a position
favorable to collegiality and democracy. Despite the existing criticism, some (minority) actors
recognize the influence of managerialist contributions to the objectives of higher education
and the design and materialization of HEI management, proposing a hybrid model that
associates the two dimensions. The study also reveals a deficit in the participation of the
higher education community in management and decision-making processes, making it
difficult to apply the collegial model.
Keywords
Higher Education, Management, Managerialism, Mozambique.
How to cite this article
Omar, Moamede Naguibe; Pereira, Renato (2020). "The characterization of management
processes in Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique. Collegiality, managerialism and
other conjugated factors". In Janus.net, e-journal of international relations. Vol. 11, No. 2
Consulted [online] at date of last visit, DOI: https://doi.org/10.26619/1647-7251.11.2.12
Article received on May 21, 2020 and accepted for publication on October 4, 2020
JANUS.NET, e-journal of International Relations
e-ISSN: 1647-7251
Vol. 11, Nº. 2 (November 2020-April 2021), pp. 199-219
The characterization of management processes in Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique.
Collegiality, managerialism and other conjugated factors
Maomede Naguib Omar, Renato Pereira
200
THE CHARACTERIZATION OF MANAGEMENT PROCESSES IN
HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN MOZAMBIQUE.
COLLEGIALITY, MANAGERIALISM AND OTHER CONJUGATED
FACTORS
1
MAOMEDE NAGUIB OMAR
RENATO PEREIRA
Introduction
This article aims to contribute to the understanding of the management and governance
processes of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Mozambique.
To fulfill our purposes, we organized the work in two parts. The main objective of the
first part is to reflect on governance and the different influences exercised on the
management of Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique, highlighting the
implications of managerialism and, particularly, the presence of the new public
management in the context of its functioning and activities. In the second part, an
empirical study is conducted on the positioning and perceptions of different actors
regarding HEI management in Mozambique. The analysis results from the application of
a qualitative methodology, in which dimensions and categories relevant to the subject
under study were considered, namely: the characterization of HEI management; the
participation of teachers, students and administrative staff (CTA) in HEI management
processes; the choices about the organizational structure; the framework of academic
degrees in HEI management; the quality of HEIs and the internal and external evaluation
processes; the implications on the functioning of HEIs due to the insufficient number of
full-time teachers and their qualifications; the financial management of HEIs in
Mozambique: financing modalities. On each of the points listed, it was possible to
establish a set of lines of force, which allow us to arrive at conclusive summaries, through
which we seek to portray the results of our analysis.
1
Article translated by Cláudia Tavares.
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The characterization of management processes in Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique.
Collegiality, managerialism and other conjugated factors
Maomede Naguib Omar, Renato Pereira
201
1. The influence of managerialism and the New Public Management in
the functioning of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)
1.1. Background
The proclaimed crisis of the welfare state in Europe, among other factors, was an
important milestone for the emergence of other modalities in the organization of the
state, namely the managerial models (Deem et al., 2007). This condition arises as a
result of the pressures exerted by the market economy on the administration of public
organizations, leading them to profound transformations aimed at making them more
efficient and effective. Within these reforms, understanding the influence of market
mechanisms on public business becomes a key factor in framing what is called "New
Public Management" (NGP). In fact, economic and market pressure is considered by
Santiago et al (2005) to be one of the reasons that explain the intrusion of managerialism
in the public sector.
With regard to higher education and its context, the neoliberal changes in the economy
have led to the questioning of the mission, organization and functioning of HEIs with
greater emphasis since the 1980s. This framework, which generates transformations and
crises, while not preventing the maintenance of the fundamental role of IES as a producer
and diffuser of knowledge, seeks to impose a model of economic rationality,
competitiveness and efficiency - "managerialism" - which results from the growing
influence of globalization and the market in higher education. This movement implies the
change of organizational and management assumptions, as well as the development of
new human capacities and the reorientation of material, financial, technological and
information resources, generating debates around higher education, its policies,
governance and management. Although this discussion is developed in multifaceted
contexts and perspectives, one of the striking aspects that deserves particular attention
is the relational change between the State and the HEIs, that is, "(...) more specifically
the changes in government measures that lead to changes in the relationship" (Maassen,
2003: 31) between these two entities. The same author points out that in the above
context, any discussion on changes in the institutional management structures of higher
education should take into account that it is the governments, at the various levels, who
are responsible for the regulatory frameworks that influence the performance of HEIs
and the management of their activities. This perspective, in our opinion, may continue
to be valid in higher education systems where the State, even maintaining the regulatory
function, does not intend to grant itself the model of control over HEIs. In fact, current
trends are increasingly leading to a State supervisory action on HEIs. In this model, also
called external control, HEIs have a broad autonomy in different areas (Han & Xu, 2019).
Another important factor seems to be the change in the form of regulation addressed to
professionals, which translates into a change in the traditional policies and practices of
human resource management. In fact, these principles are supported by the work of
Ekman et al. (2018). This study establishes that in the framework of the reforms and the
affirmation of the autonomy of HEIs, they assume the main responsibilities in the
management and governance of all their activities, especially financial and human
resources (Marques, 2012), notwithstanding the regulatory power of the state.
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The characterization of management processes in Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique.
Collegiality, managerialism and other conjugated factors
Maomede Naguib Omar, Renato Pereira
202
1.2. The redefinition of the role of the State and the emergence of the New
Public Management
Changes in the structure of the state, in the sense of increasingly replacing classic forms
of intervention with regulation and guidance, the diversification of traditional forms of
public action and, in general, changes in forms of governance, have imposed structural
changes in the ways in which administration operates. Waring (2017) refers to these
changes as the deconstruction of many of the instruments and organizational schemes
that supported traditional state administration, leading to the discussion, always current,
around the functions of the state and the means to carry them out. In addition to the
above assumptions, and before addressing specific aspects, the contextualization and
understanding of the emergence of the New Public Management (NGP) involves an
analysis of the different forms of management in public administration that have emerged
throughout the history of modernity. In the following chronological description, some
particular circumstances of African countries are exemplified, including Mozambique,
largely because of its recent history linked to colonialism. Thus, according to Omar
(2005), the Public Patrimonialist Administration designates the imperial or colonial
domination period. This framework also includes bangs of forms of patrimonialism (neo-
patrimonialism) resulting from the local social organization. Fundamentally, in this type
of administration, the State functions as an extension of the sovereign power of the Kings
and Lords, the rights are granted according to personal criteria and the positions held as
"gifts". In this case, Res Publica equals Res Principis.
The "Bureaucratic Public Administration" is characterized by the establishment of a
rational-legal power, based basically on the idea of career and professionalization,
formalism and impersonality and the concept of functional hierarchy. In this model,
administrative controls are carried out a priori, constituting the guarantee of the State's
power and becoming its own raison d'être. "To this model corresponds an administration
that bases its relationship with citizens on formalism, based on standardized routines and
procedures" (Rocha, 2002: 37).
The authority of this model based on Max Weber's theoretical principles (e.g. Braun et
al., 2015), is stifled through the obedience of the followers. The fundamental
characteristics of the weberian bureaucracy, such as regulation, stability and continuity
based on formal authority, impersonality of compliance with norms and professionalism
of positions, constitute elements that, although called into question by the most current
substitute models, subsist as central themes for discussion on the organization of public
administration. In our view, this set of regulatory instruments continues to be useful in
modern times as they constitute factors of influence and integral elements of the state
both in developed countries and, for the most part, in developing countries.
It is in this wake, and also as a result of the crisis in administrative theory, that the
managerialist or managerialist model emerges, based on a managerial orientation of
public purposes, aiming at greater efficiency and effectiveness of services. This model,
which is inspired by and tends to approach business management, highlights the need
and importance of the study and the combination between public policies and public
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The characterization of management processes in Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique.
Collegiality, managerialism and other conjugated factors
Maomede Naguib Omar, Renato Pereira
203
management. Referring to the model, Rocha (2002), advocates the need to decentralize
and deconcentrate skills. The model also highlights the differentiation between policy and
administration. It is up to the policy to draw up the guidelines, to be complied with by
the administration, in a framework regulated by the principles of private management.
The "Managerial Public Administration" is considered by some the public management
par excellence. The model advocates a posteriori control of results. It is based, as
mentioned above, on the efficiency of flexible and horizontal organizational structures
and, at least in rhetorical terms, on an approach to the citizen. On the other hand, the
need to decentralize decision making using a proactive and innovative language is
advocated. This model, which fundamentally configures the New Public Management
(NGP), presupposes a neoliberal aspect. Carapeto and Fonseca (2005) consider that what
is valued is the logic of the market.
1.3. The link and importance of managerialism in Higher Education
Reversing the set of considerations highlighted above, the assumptions and practices of
the NGP also extended to the field of governance and management of higher education.
The changes that have emerged have been characterized by a shift from a model
characterized by tight state control and regulation of higher education to a less restrictive
model of supervision (Dopson et al., 2019; Santiago et al., 2006). These new forms of
state regulation of higher education systems are largely the result of the process of
globalization (Seixas, 2001).
Growth in student numbers, political pressures, the rise of the knowledge economy,
among other reasons, have placed the governance and management of Higher Education
Institutions (HEIs) on the agenda of educational reforms in developed and developing
countries. This movement emerged mainly from the 1980s, when explicit references were
made to the managers of the HEIs. The legitimization of the principles and managerial
models, particularly the NGP in the higher education systems of the various countries
resulted, also, from international trends considered inevitable and recommended by
supranational agencies such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) and the World Bank (WB). Thus, the role of international
organizations in the dissemination of a transnational higher education model that conveys
and accentuates market logic trends in higher education systems is relevant (Seixas,
2001).
According to Santiago et al. (2005), these external pressures to which the system has
been subjected are the result of the confluence of financial restrictions due, in part, to
the dismantling of the provisions of the welfare state to which we have already referred,
but also of expectations and social demand, and also of the relativization of the symbolic
capital of the HEI and the demands of the new economy (new qualifications, skills and
profiles). They converge towards a relationship between the State and higher education
rethought in the light of management, with the objective of orienting HEIs to the market.
In this context, the introduction of financial autonomy mechanisms is one of its main
mottoes (David, 2008).
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Collegiality, managerialism and other conjugated factors
Maomede Naguib Omar, Renato Pereira
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Other substantive factors, present in the intention of managerialist narratives in higher
education, find support in two types of arguments, which constitute one of the pillars on
which this intention seeks to legitimize itself. On the one hand, the belief is widespread
that the higher education system and its institutions do not reform themselves as quickly
as the changes taking place in the surrounding environment; on the other hand, collegial
governance is connoted with traditional academic practices and structures, aligned with
corporate interests (Santiago & Carvalho, 2004). This positioning supports the rhetoric
about the irrationality and inefficiency of collegiality supported in the exercise of
professional power by academics.
In fact, managerialism combines political, institutional and organizational premises with
rational principles that seem not to be well organized but in which it is possible to detect
some coherence around notions of market, competition, individual choice, responsibility
and efficiency (Santiago et al., 2005). These authors consider that, in this context, there
is a feeling that managerialism influences higher education at different levels, in
particular at the level of strategies for reorganizing the system; management and
governance of institutions, including their institutional cultures and the individual
behavior of their professionals. These two levels influence the conceptualization of the
mission of institutions and also their final objectives, which play an important role in
mediating between political intentions and concrete institutional practices. The perception
of the different actors about the purposes and objectives of higher education constitutes,
in fact, the guiding framework of the decision-making process and, in this sense,
influences the strategies and policies of the institutions (Akanji et al., 2020).
In addition to being configured as a political and managerial tool for pressure on HEIs,
managerialism in general and the NGP in particular also find support within the academy
itself, since "(...) processes of accommodation emerge (...) that create some facilitating
conditions for the acceptance of pressures and their naturalization in and by academic
actors" (Santiago et al., 2005: 35). The reasons given by the authors for this are diverse.
Some are linked to the growth and development dynamics of higher education itself;
others are inherent to the difficulties of traditional HEI structures and forms of
government in dealing with outside pressures. On the other hand, this acceptance and
materialization is also rooted in the dissemination and fragmentation of scientific and
technological knowledge, as well as in the transformations of the representations of the
academic actors regarding the purposes and forms of organization of higher education
(Kozyrev et al., 2019).
However, the issue of the influence of the NGP on the IES métier does not gather
consensus and consists of two main distinct positions. According to David (2008), NGP
advocates proclaim the advantages of models that stimulate the competitiveness and
efficiency of HEIs regulated by the market, under supervision and with occasional
interventions by the State. This would aim to increase the quality of teaching, research,
technology transfer and the relevance of the services provided to the community. For
their part, opponents of these models allege the reduction of internal democracy in the
life of HEIs, the excessive subordination of HEIs to the logic of financial profitability,
devaluation and lack of freedom of research, including the risk of excessive institutional
control over teaching and research for commercial purposes.
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The characterization of management processes in Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique.
Collegiality, managerialism and other conjugated factors
Maomede Naguib Omar, Renato Pereira
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This latter position, especially with regard to what many scholars tend to refer to as
"good old times", in which decisions at the Academy were taken in a collegial atmosphere,
without serious external interference, are regarded by the defenders of managerialism
as nostalgic and idealistic. On the other hand, by examining the nature of management
reforms in higher education, it is possible to highlight the general feeling that academic
life "is no longer the same thing. Many changes have taken place. Among those that can
be listed we highlight that the very impact of the massification of higher education has
been altering the social recognition of higher education systems and therefore taking
away credit from them.
To illustrate the position of those opposed to managerialism, Maassen (2003) portrays
some common positions among academics. They consider that HEIs, when supported by
the collegial model, present themselves in an advantage, occupying a higher academic
level. They criticize the managerialist current for being conducted more for economic
reasons than for academic ones. They emphasize their position postulating that the IES
are not "shoe factories" and cannot therefore be managed as if they were "shoe
factories".
According to Readings (2003), most of those who address the problem of the HEI choose
one of two positions: either nostalgic exhortations in which a return to the humboldtian
ideals of a modular community and social functioning is advocated; or technocratic
demands that advocate a HEI to welcome with open arms its corporate identity, becoming
more productive and more efficient.
We can therefore state that the difficulty - or the impossibility - of reconciling the
"entrepreneurial HEIs", inspired by a market culture, with the idea of teaching and
research, understood as public goods, seems to be the fundamental puzzle of the new
paradigms of governance of HEIs and their relationship with society. As a consequence
of these positions, a relevant and inevitable question arises. What and who currently
dominates the higher education systems and in particular their institutions? Anyone
familiar with the complexity of higher education issues will admit that it is not easy to
formulate a reliable answer to this question. In a peculiar approach, Readings (2003)
considers that no new identity is needed for HEI, emphasizing that we have to recognize
that the loss of reference of the function of HEI opens a space in which we can think
differently the notions of community and communication. Thus, it is considered that,
even though the challenge of the present conjuncture is difficult, the construction of a
better institution, the production of another efficiency model, another unified and unifying
project is not required. What is required, with intelligence, is a type of thinking that does
not seek to lend the work done at the HEI a unified ideological function (Barnnett, 2000),
seeking also to find a new language in which the HEI can claim its role as locus of higher
education.
Crossing this discussion with globalization, which is also commercial, and in the same
line of thought, we can affirm that in the framework of a global economy, it is no longer
possible to resort to HEIs to provide a model of community. In the same sense, the call
to HEI as a model of community no longer answers the question about its social function.
Alternatively, it is proposed that HEI be a place where one tries to think about the social
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The characterization of management processes in Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique.
Collegiality, managerialism and other conjugated factors
Maomede Naguib Omar, Renato Pereira
206
bond without resorting to a unifying idea, be it from the cultural perspective or that of
the State. Readings (2003) argues that the future of post-historic HEI seems to be related
to community thinking, which abandons expressive identity or transnational consensus
as a means to achieve unity.
The alternative we have been presenting, besides being an option supported by different
principles of the NGP, seems to establish the gradual abandonment of the principle of the
link between HEI and the national identity that has dominated the HEI referential in the
last three centuries, particularly in Europe, although it can be referenced differently in
developing countries.
1.4. Criticism regarding managerialism and the New Public Management
As for its application in higher education, many questions remain open. However,
Santiago et al. (2005), portraying the example of what happened in Portugal, maintain
that until 2005 the interference of managerialism and the market in higher education
was not entirely successful, with no changes as profound as the strength with which the
managerialist ideology sought to introduce itself into higher education. This argument is
supported by some evidence that continues to endure and to mark academic life. In fact,
the collegial way of functioning has maintained some of its mechanisms; academic
managers continue to value their professional roles more than management roles; basic
research has continued to resist (with difficulty) entrepreneurship; the "vocational"
ideology has not fully submerged into education and training; and most academics seem
to continue to resist the new languages and cultures of management and economics
(Santiago et al., 2005).
However, the authors recognize that the inexistence of the link between higher education
and the economy and the criticism of the collegiate functioning had an echo in the political
measures of structuring higher education: the institutionalization of the evaluation and
accreditation systems managed to materialize the economic and employability criteria;
the financing of higher education has been restricted and rules changed, encouraging
self-financing; inter-institutional competition is promoted in the belief that it is an
instrument to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness; the rhetoric of globalization
and the knowledge economy/society has succeeded in stimulating the idea of the univocal
relationship between knowledge and the competitiveness of nations (Santiago et al.,
2005).
The influence that the NGP exerts on the public sector, particularly on the higher
education system, is likely to bring some advantages in response to expectations and
social demand and even as a response to the various dimensions of the IES crisis.
However, its analysis cannot be oriented to a unidirectional and deterministic vision. The
contradictions of the NGP are, as we have seen, evident, as are the contradictions arising
from the deification of the market, the notion of its infallibility and the mythical and ideal
character of private management.
The current debate on IES highlights the contradiction between institutional autonomy
and the pressure to submit it to business criteria (Aithal & Kumar, 2019). This
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The characterization of management processes in Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique.
Collegiality, managerialism and other conjugated factors
Maomede Naguib Omar, Renato Pereira
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phenomenon seems to accentuate the institutional crisis of HEI and the consequent
paradigmatic change, namely the removal of higher education from the Nation-State and
the Welfare-State. In this way, humanist culture is marginalized in favor of market
interests, promoting academic capitalism turned to a liberal learning regime. These
factors, appealing to principles of efficiency, facilitate the mercantilization of higher
education, the acceleration of the globalization movement and the emergence of
managerialist models. It can therefore be concluded that the influence of market forces,
combined with the lack of funding and the internationalization of higher education may
have contributed to the identity crisis of the HEI. This reality seems to have led to a
change in the forms of regulation of higher education by the state, but not necessarily to
the end of its strategic control (Santiago & Carvalho, 2004).
In an increasingly globalized world, higher education systems are led to play a
fundamental role in the production and dissemination of knowledge, contributing to the
elevation of citizenship, culture, science, and innovation in the societies in which they are
inserted.
In contrast, the processes of global diffusion have emerged models of recontextualization
that seek to reflect the national or local realities of each country. In order to escape the
single-minded order of globalization, higher education seeks an institutional logic of
public service provision, in which the organizational structure facilitates the harmonious
integration of teaching and research. It seeks to establish policies for higher education
that enable the creation of human capital, social capital, and cultural capital capable of
dealing critically with globalization. This positioning implies the redefinition of the mission
and role of HEI in the face of new world trends and the challenges of the knowledge
society.
Although the managerialist ideology has not been completely successful, keeping many
questions open, it is recognized that the logic of market and management economic
rationality has hegemonized the policy of reconfiguration of systems and HEIs (Deem et
al., 2007).
We can, therefore, conclude that the influence, at IES, of managerialism in general and
NGP in particular, does not seem to gather consensus. While some arguments insist on
defending the model because of the possibility it confers of stimulating the
competitiveness and efficiency of HEIs, others criticize it for its excessive dependence on
the market, for private management, and for the reduction of internal democracy, in
addition to other factors mentioned above.
2. Empirical study: the management of higher education institutions in
Mozambique
2.1. Methodological framework
The methodological option taken for our empirical study was a qualitative approach
because we considered that it would better enable us to interpret and analyze the feelings
and motivations of the actors involved in the phenomenon of the study. Thus, a
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The characterization of management processes in Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique.
Collegiality, managerialism and other conjugated factors
Maomede Naguib Omar, Renato Pereira
208
probabilistic and random sample was determined in which each member of the population
studied had the same probability of being selected to integrate the said sample. In other
words, the possibilities of choice were not predetermined and could fall on any of the
actors. Since this was the main determinant of the sample's constitution, it was also
stratified to include universities and colleges, public institutions and private institutions,
and the geographical distribution of the same institutions. Thus, and taking into account
the objectives of the study, the data analysis technique chosen, the size of the
bibliographic review and also the resources and time allocated to the study, a sample of
9 HEIs representing 18.4% of the population consisting of 49 HEIs was determined
(according to data from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Higher Education and
Technical and Vocational Education of Mozambique).
Two scripts were initially chosen for the pilot interviews (one for HEI directors and
teachers and one for students). From the analysis made in the pilot phase, it was
concluded that the level of responses did not justify a differentiation, choosing to
establish only one universal script for the interviews. Once the data collection was
completed, the following analysis grid was created from which the discussion and analysis
of the data took place:
1. Dimension - Characterization of HEI Management and Governance in Mozambique
1.1. Category: IES Management and Governance Models
Topics:
1.1.1. Traditional Academic Bodies
Fundamentals of the Principles of Collegiality
1.1.2. System and Managerialist Processes
Identification of tools and factors associated with
managerialism
1.1.3. Other Systems and Models
Characterization of the option taken
1.2. Category: Participation of Teachers, Students and CTA in Management and Governance
Processes
Topics:
1.2.1. Modalities for Organizational and Management
Framing
Checking the factors leading to integration
1.2.2. Absence of assumptions for integration in
organizational and management processes
Identification of reasons leading to non-participation
1.3. Category: Organizational Structure Design for HEIs
Topics:
1.3.1. Best option for the organizational structure
Characterization of the most suitable model
1.3.2. Pedagogical and teaching structure
Identification of the most efficient model
2. Dimension - Pedagogical Implications for the Management of HEI in Mozambique
2.1. Category: Course and Program Development Options
Topics:
2.1.1. Contribution to the Sustainability of the
Institution
2.1.2. Appropriate levels of quality in the teaching
and research process
2.2. Category Higher Education Degrees in Mozambique
Topics:
2.2.1. Bachelors, Masters and Doctorate (LMD)
degrees framework in the ES system.
2.2.2. Ideal model for the degree structure in the ES
system
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The characterization of management processes in Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique.
Collegiality, managerialism and other conjugated factors
Maomede Naguib Omar, Renato Pereira
209
2.3. Category: The Teachers' contribution to the efficiency and effectiveness of management and
pedagogical results
Topics: Insufficient number of full-time teachers (Or
Excessive number of part-time teachers)
Implications for management efficiency and
effectiveness
3.Dimension Financial Implications for HEI Management in Mozambique
3.1. Category: Financing of HEIs
Topics:
3.1.1. Constraints of the State and other Entities in
the Financing of HEIs
3.1.2. The role of family society and citizens in the
financing of ES
3.2. Category: Legislation on the Financial Management of HEIs
Topics:
3.2.1. Fiscal Responsibilities of HEIs (regulation of
financial management of HEIs)
Assessment of the tax burden established for HEIs
(verification of a specific regul